Stop here to learn EVERYTHING there is to know about the Genitive Case in Russian – родительный падеж

Of all the 6 cases in Russian, it is the genitive case which tends to inspire the most fear in learners of the Russian language. Why? Because it’s a bit of a beast. A great source of confusion for students is the fact that the bulk of prepositions in Russian trigger the use of the genitive case, rather than the more aptly named ‘ prepositional ‘ case. Then there’s the fact that some prepositions which trigger the genitive case may also take the accusative case. Also, it answers so many bloody questions!

It may not be as straightforward to grasp as the other cases, but fear not. I searched through every corner of the web and my resources to compile as much information as possible before creating this guide and as of the date of publication, there isn’t a more comprehensive guide available on the Internet and at no cost to you beyond your time.

Think of this guide as your buddy. Step-by-step, you’ll be introduced to the circumstances which give rise to the use of the genitive case and given clear examples of its use. You might not master the case the first time, or even the second time, that you read through it. However, bookmark this page, print it out – choose whichever format you prefer to digest information in – and you’ll find it a trusty resource as you try to navigate the specific uses of this case, annotate Russian texts as you try to determine the cases used and prepare for exams in the Russian language on your journey to fluency.


Кого?- Who?, Чего? – What?, У кого? – Who has?, Чей? – Whose?, Откуда? – From where?, От кого? – From whom?, Когда? – When?, Какой? – What; Which; What kind of?, Сколько? – How [much /many]?, Сколько времени? / Как долго? – How long?

The genitive case is used:

1. To highlight ownership (that is, that someone or something ‘owns’, ‘possesses’ or ‘belongs to’ something else), or a type of relationship between two people or things.

Questions: ЧЕЙ? ЧЬЯ? ЧЬЁ? – Whose?

In English, we indicate possession through the use of one of the following:

(a) a possessive adjective; (b) a possessive pronoun; (c) an apostrophe + s after a proper noun; (d) an apostrophe + s after a noun; (e) the use of the preposition of; or (f) the use of a living noun as an adjective before another noun .

Only indicators (C) – (F), highlighted in bold, trigger the use of the genitive case. The non-highlighted sentences indicating possession, or a relationship or connection of some sort in English do not require the genitive in Russian because the possessive pronouns (my/mine, your/yours, etc…) already indicate possession.

Note that the possessor of an object, animal, relationship with, or connection to something else, takes the genitive case and not the thing that is owned or the subject of a type of relationship. In Russian, the possessor of an object, animal or relationship with something else appears after the object (or animal) it possesses, or the thing with which a relationship is established, unlike in English.

For example:

a. It’s my book. – Это моя книга. The book is owned by the person proclaiming it is theirs. THE GENITIVE CASE IS NOT USED HERE.

b. That key is mine. – Этот ключ мой. The key is owned by the person proclaiming it is theirs. THE GENITIVE CASE IS NOT USED HERE.

c. This is Christopher’s brother. – Это брат Кристофера. The genitive case is used to highlight the relationship between Christopher and his brother.

d. New Zealand’s success in handling the corona virus crisis is enviable. – Новой Зеландии завиден успех в борьбе с кризисом коронного вируса. The success belongs to New Zealand, because New Zealand achieved it.

e. The Minister of Education has arrived. – Прибыл министр образования. Education has (possesses) someone who manages it (a minister).

f. Mosquito bites are itchy! – Укусы комаров чешутся! Mosquitos possess itchy bites.

2. In positive (also known as affirmative) constructions indicating possession using the construction below, which is equivalent to the English I have (got) or I own.

Questions: КОГО? ЧЕГО? – Who? What?

The direct translation of ‘to have’ in Russian would be иметь. However, it is rarely used and the genitive case construction is preferred.

У + someone/something (=subject: in the genitive case) + есть + someone/something (in the nominative case)

Literally translated, this means ‘By [subject] there is/are [thing or animal]. The verb есть cannot take a direct object, therefore the accusative case is not used. The preposition у is only ever followed by the genitive case and therefore the person or thing in possession of the item (or the animal as the case may be) takes the genitive case, whilst the animal or thing being possessed takes the nominative case. In questions, the sentence is not reorganised as it would be in English in order to ensure it begins with a verb. Instead, simply place the vocal stress on the verb есть – there is (singular), there are (plural), exists (singular), exist (plural) .

Note that there are two genitive case pronouns for the personal pronouns он, она and они.

English personal pronoun

Russian personal pronoun

Genitive case personal pronoun: form 1

Genitive case personal pronoun: form 2














a. When using the genitive case in a construction which would require a personal pronoun to be used in the English translation, use the second form with н. This is for ease of pronunciation after the preposition у.

b. When using the genitive case in a construction which would require a possessive adjective to be used in the English translation, use the second form without н.

c. The second form with н is never used when no preposition precedes it.

For example:

I [have / own] a few properties in the area. – У меня есть несколько домов в этом районе.

Do you have a pen I could borrow please? – [У вас (formal) / тебя (informal)] есть ручка, которую я могу одолжить?

He has three siblings. – У него есть три брата и сестры.

She has a dog. – У неё есть собака.

The hairdryer has two heat settings. – У фена есть два режима работы.

We have a second home, if you would like to stay there with us next summer. – У нас есть второй дом, если ты хочешь остаться с нами следующим летом.

You all have similar facial features. – У вас у всех есть одинаковые черты лица.

They have two cars. – У них есть две машины.

d. Note that the word есть is added where the item or relationship in question is more or less permanent.

For example:

I have (own) a car. – У меня есть машина.

He has a brother. – У него есть брат.

e. However, when referring to something in one’s possession temporarily, you should drop the word есть .

For example:

Who has the rubber? – У кого резина?

I have it. – Он / она / оно у меня.

f. Avoid using есть when talking about body parts or abstract notions… it just sounds plain weird to native speakers.

He has a well-trimmed beard. – У него хорошо подстриженная борода.

She has a terrible temper. – У нее ужасный характер.

3. In negative constructions indicating possession, using the construction below, which is equivalent to the English I haven’t got or I don’t have.

У + someone/something (=subject: in the genitive case) + нет + someone/something (in the genitive case)

As you can see, we simply replace есть with нет and ensure that both the subject and the object are in the genitive case. Although нет ordinarily means no, in this context, it is a contraction of не есть. You may also hear people say нету, which is a colloquial form of the word нет.

Aside from нет, you should also be aware of не было – didn’t have, which describes the absence of something in the past tense and не будет – will not (won’t) have, which describes the absence of something in the future. None of these forms change in accordance with the noun which follows in terms of number or gender.

Note that there are two genitive case pronouns for the personal pronouns он, она and они.

English personal pronoun

Russian personal pronoun

Genitive case personal pronoun: Form 1

Genitive case personal pronoun: Form 2














a. When using the genitive case in a construction which would require a personal pronoun to be used in the English translation, use the second form with н. This is for ease of pronunciation after the preposition у.

b. When using the genitive case in a construction which would require a possessive adjective to be used in the English translation, use the second form without н.

c. The second form with н is never used when no preposition precedes it.

For example:

I don’t have a guitar. – У меня нет гитары.

You don’t have a clue about what has been going on. – У тебя нет ни малейшего понятия о том, что происходит.

He hasn’t got any friends . – У него нет друзей.

She doesn’t have a phone . – У неё нет телефона.

The house doesn’t have a balcony . – У дома нет балкона.

We don’t have a problem with that. – У нас нет проблем с этим.

You don’t have your books ? – У вас нет своих книг?

They don’t have any children . – У них нет детей.

4. To express the fact that something exists or doesn’t exist, using the same construction used to express ‘has (not) got’ above.

Recall that есть can mean there is (singular), there are (plural), exists (singular), exist (plural) .

To say that there is something, use the construction below:

У + someone/something (=subject: in the genitive case) + есть + someone/something (in the nominative case)

To say that something doesn’t exist, use the construction below:

У + someone/something (=subject: in the genitive case) + нет + someone/something (in the genitive case)

For example:

I don’t have a sister. – У меня нет сестры.

You don’t have a car? – У тебя нет машины?

He doesn’t have any friends. – У него нет друзей.

She doesn’t have any plans this weekend. – У нее нет никаких планов на эти выходные. –

We don’t have any eggs. – У нас нет яиц.

You (plural) don’t have any manners. – У вас нет никаких манер.

They don’t have any self-discipline. – У них нет никакой самодисциплины.

5. In exclamations when complimenting someone, without the verb есть.

The у + genitive construction, or the genitive personal pronouns are used in this context to indicate who possesses the object. The words есть and нет are not used because the focus is on a quality of an object already known to exist, rather than whether the object exists or not.

For example:

What a beautiful bag (you have)! – Какая у вас красивая сумка!

Your dress is beautiful! – Платье у тебя красивое!

His singing voice is incredible! – Голос его пения просто невероятен!

Her speech was inspiring! – Её речь была вдохновляющей!

How kind our grandmother was! – Какой у нас была добрая бабушка!

Their wedding was amazing! – У них была потрясающая свадьба!

6. Following indefinite adjectives which are a form of quantifier (that is, a word which describes quantities, amounts, or degrees without specifying precisely how much as an exact number).

Question: Сколько? – How many?

In this way, the genitive case is used to talk about a quantity of something that does not constitute a whole. The words which indicate that the genitive case is required are generally fall into five categories: (1) indefinite adjectives ; (2) units of measurement ; (3) collective nouns ; (4) nouns commonly (but not exclusively) used as units of measurement with uncountable nouns in English, which include packages such as boxes, cartons and tubes, and utensils such as bowls and cups; and (5) with the verbs хватать/хватить – to be enough.

Category 1:






not enough

мало (indicating a low number, or amount)

few, little, not many, not much


quite a lot of


a lot of, lots of, many, much,


not many, not much, some, a bit of


how many / much?

Несколько (indicating a merely ‘sufficient’ number, or amount)

a few, several, some


a (little) bit









Note that несколько and мало are to some extent interchangeable.

For example:

We bought a lot of stationery. – Мы купили много канцелярских принадлежностей.

There were lots ofpeople at the park today. – Сегодня в парке было много людей.

I have a few apples if you would like some. – У меня есть несколько яблок, если хотите.

The house will be worth much more in a fewyears. – Через несколько лет дом будет стоить гораздо больше.

Just a little bit, please. – Чуть-чуть, пожалуйста.

A few days have passed since I last spoke to her. – Прошло несколько дней с тех пор, как я последний раз с ней говорил.

How many people are coming? – Сколько людей придёт?

How much time do we have left? – Сколько у нас осталось времени?

I have so many things to do today! – У меня еще столько дел сегодня!

He has quite a lot of money. – У него немало денег.

We don’t have enough bread. – У нас недостаточно хлеба.

Would you like a glass of milk? – Хотите стакан молока?

He doesn’t have enough money to pay off his debt. – У него не достаточно денег, чтобы расплатиться с долгами.

There are less people here today than yesterday. – Сегодня здесь меньше людей, чем вчера.

There are more speakers of English in the world than Italian. – В мире больше носителей английского, чем итальянского.

Category 2:

Measurements *





a yard


an inch


a mile

пядь, or че́тверть

a quarter


a foot

For example:

She bought four yards of silk. – Она купила четыре ярда шелка.

She is an inch taller than her boyfriend. – Она на дюйм выше своего парня.

In the following sentences, the genitive case is not used because because they trigger the use of a preposition which takes another case.

The supermarket is two miles away. – Супермаркет в двух милях отсюда.

The seed was a quarter of an inch in size. – Семя было размером в четверть дюйма.

He is 6 feet tall. – Он 6 футов в высоту.



a hectare (approx.)

квадратный метр

a square metre


a metre


an acre


1/100 of a hectare

For example:

They own four hectares of land. – Они владеют четырьмя гектарами земли.


Dry measurements


a bucket


a mug



Liquid measurements


a glass (of wine)


a barrel


a bottle


a bucket


a shot


a mug


a litre


a pint


16.4 kg (approx.)

Note: Used (rarely) by those in the fitness industry in Russia to describe the weight of a kettlebell (Russian: гиря), which Russia is widely credited with inventing, although this is not entirely true .

For example:

The woman is drinking a glass of red wine. – Женщина пьет бокал красного вина.

Someone stole a barrel of wine from the restaurant. – Кто-то украл бочку вина из ресторана.

He drank the bottle of water very quickly. – Он очень быстро выпил бутылку воды.

He drank a pint of beer before bed. – Он выпил бокал пива перед сном.

The boy dropped a bucket of water. – Мальчик уронил ведро воды.

Would you like a shot of vodka? – Хочешь рюмку водки?

Did you have a mug of hot chocolate this evening? – У тебя была кружка горячего шоколада сегодня вечером?

I bought one litre of milk from the farmer. – Я купил у фермера один литр молока.



a kilogram


an ounce


a pound


a ton(ne)

For example:

I bought five kilograms of pasta. – Я купил пять килограмм макарон

He doesn’t have an ounce of courage. – У него нет ни унции мужества.

She weighs 120 (one hundred and twenty) pounds. – Она весит сто двадцать фунтов.

The average elephant weighs seven tonnes. – Средний слон весит семь тонн.

The phone costs five hundred roubles. – Телефон стоит пятьсот фунтов.



a dozen

Category 3:

a band (group) of musicians

группа музыкантов

a board of directors

совет директоров

a class of pupils (pre-university)

класс учеников

a class of students (university)

класс студентов

a crowd of people

толпа людей

a panel (group) of experts

группа экспертов

a group of players

группа игроков

a flock of birds

стая птиц

a flock of sheep

стадо овец

a herd of deer

стадо оленей

a pack of wolves

стая волков

a swarm of locusts

рой саранчи

a bouquet / bunch of flowers

[букет / букет] цветов

a fleet of ships

флот кораблей

a pack of cards

пачка карт

a pair of shoes

пара туфель

a range of stakeholders

широкий круг заинтересованных сторон

a pile of rocks

куча камней

Category 4:

a bag of flour

мешок муки

a bag of rice

мешок риса

a bar of chocolate

плитка шоколада

a bar of soap

кусок мыла

a bottle of Coke

бутылка колы

a bottle of milk

бутылка молока

a bottle of water

бутылка воды

a bottle of wine

бутылка вина

a bowl of cereal

миска с хлопьями

a bowl of rice

чаша с рисом

a bowl of soup

тарелка супа

a box of cereal

коробка хлопьев

a box of paper

коробка бумаги

a can of tuna

банка тунца

a carton of orange juice

пачка апельсинового сока

a carton of milk

пачка молока

a cup of coffee

чашка кофе

a cup of hot chocolate

чашка горячего шоколада

a cup of tea

чашка чая

a drop of blood

капля крови

a glass of beer

бокал пива

a glass of juice

стакан сока

a glass of water

стакан воды

a glass of wine

бокал вина

an item of clothing

предмет одежды

a jar of honey

банка меда

a jar of jam

банка варенья

a jar of peanut butter

банка арахисового масла

a piece of furniture

предмет мебели

a piece of paper

листок бумаги

a slice of bread

кусок хлеба

a slice of cheese

кусочек сыра

a slice of meat

кусок мяса

a slice of toast

кусок тоста

a spoonful of sugar

ложка сахара

a tablespoon of butter

столовая ложка масла

a tablespoon of honey

столовая ложка меда

a teaspoon of salt

чайная ложка соли

a tube of glue

тюбик клея

a tube of lipstick

тюбик губной помады

a tube of toothpaste

тюбик зубной пасты

Category 5:

хватать/хватить – to be enough

For example:

We don’t have enough time to go to the supermarket. – У нас не хватает времени, чтобы пойти в супермаркет.

7. Following cardinal numbers greater than ONE, when used to indicate the precise quantity of a noun.

Note that foreign loan words (that is, nouns borrowed from other languages), which end in Russian vowels: -а, -о, -и and –у, do not change form, irrespective of the quantity stipulated.

For example:

He has had two interviews this week. – У него было два интервью на этой неделе.

I bought three beautiful coats. – Я купила три красивых пальто.

There are five taxis waiting outside the airport. – За пределами аэропорта ждут пять такси.

There are twenty metro stations in the city. – В городе двадцать станций метро.

The nominative case is used to indicate the precise quantity of a noun after the single digit 1 and the nominative case form is chosen in accordance with the gender of the direct object.

The number one is always singular, hence why the plural genitive case form is not used.

For example:

I found one pencil in the cupboard. – Я нашел один карандаш в шкафу. (Masculine)

There is one strawberry left. – Осталась одна клубника. (Feminine)

We had to share one seat on the bus. – Нам пришлось делить одно место в автобусе. (Neuter)

The genitive singular is used after the single digits 2, 3 and 4 and any numbers ending with them, excluding 12, 13 and 14 (e.g. 22 , 43, 64…)

Where a feminine noun is used with either 2, 3, or 4, the adjective is used in Nominative plural . *See the example starred below.

For example:

I drank two cups of coffee. – Я выпил две чашки кофе.

* The farmer bought three large cows. – Фермер купил три большие коровы.

He ate three bars of chocolate yesterday. – Вчера он съел три плитки шоколада.

We have four days to do the homework. – У нас есть четыре дня, чтобы сделать домашнее задание.

I would like to buy twenty-two apples, please. – Я бы хотел купить двадцать два яблока, пожалуйста.

There were thirty-three candles on her birthday cake. – На ее именинном торте было тридцать три свечи.

There are forty-four floors in the building. – В здании сорок четыре этажа.

The genitive plural is used with the numbers 5 to 19 (excluding 12, 13 and 14) and any numbers ending with the numbers 5 to 9 (e.g. 45, 208, 5044).

For example:

We walked five kilometres yesterday. – Вчера мы прошли пять километров.

There are six grammatical cases in the Russian language. – В русском языке шесть грамматических падежей.

He lived with eight other students at university. – Он жил с восемью другими студентами университета.

A panel of eighteen experts were invited to speak at the conference. – Для выступления на конференции была приглашена группа из восемнадцати экспертов.

He will turn forty-five this year. – В этом году ему исполнится сорок пять.

There are four hundred and twenty-eight animals in the conservation park. – В заповеднике четыреста двадцать восемь животных.

We delivered three thousand nine hundred and eighty-eight parcels to customers last month. – В прошлом месяце мы доставили три тысячи девятьсот восемьдесят восемь посылок покупателям.

8. With ordinal numbers in order to indicate position in a series…

Ordinal numbers are those numbers which indicate the position or degree of something in a series (first – 1st, second – 2nd, third – 3rd and so on). Ordinal numbers are used to tell the time, to specify the date something took, is taking or will take place and in certain contexts where a cardinal number would be used in English (e.g. with fractions*, TV channel numbers, book chapters and pages, seat numbers in public transport, bus numbers and hotel rooms). As they are adjectives, there must be agreement in gender, number and case with the nouns they modify. They generally decline using the genitive case endings for adjectives, which are provided at the end of the article.

* Rather than being expressed as ordinal numbers, the following fractions are expressed as nouns with proper names:


English noun

Russian noun





a third



a quarter


Below is a table of the ordinal numbers in Russian in the nominative case. In order to discover the declensions, enter the nominative form of the ordinal number required (in accordance with the gender or plural of the noun connected to the ordinal number) in the search field of the case declension generator here. The website is in Russian, but don’t be frightened: you can easily navigate it despite this. The form you need will be on the row with the questions ‘ кого – of who, чего – of what?’ followed by the letter ‘Р’, which stands for родительный падеж – the genitive case. The first word on the row is the singular form for the relevant gender, whilst the second word on the row is the plural form for the relevant gender.

Ordinal number























































For example:

I didn’t see the first half of the football match. – Я не видел первого тайма футбольного матча.

It is precisely on these elements that the measures contained in the second section of the plan are focused. – Именно на этих направлениях сфокусированы мероприятия второго раздела плана.

At the end of the third paragraph add the following text: – В конце третьего абзаца добавить:

She is a fourth-year medical student at this University. – Она студентка четвертого курса медицинского факультета этого университета .

Are you free on the seventh of June? – Вы свободны седьмого июня?

He was born in the sixties. – Он родился в шестидесятых. ( Literally: in the sixtieth)

…or to mark the specific date on which something took place, or is due to take place.

Question: Когда – When?

The case you should use is dependent upon the question being against. If the date is given in response to the question ‘ on what day was that?’ then the genitive case is required. On the contrary, if the date is given in response to the question ‘when’ and you reply with ‘[It was on – был / is on – (the dash replaces the present tense conjugation of the verb to be) / will be on – будет …]’ or ‘(It is) 5th March – (Это) пятый марш’, the nominative case is used. Note that all months in Russian are of masculine grammatical gender.

For example:

Nominative case

(It is) 5th March – (Это) пятое марта

Yesterday was 5th April. – Вчера было пятое апреля.

Today is 6th April. – Сегодня шестое апреля.

Tomorrow will be 7th April. – Завтра будет седьмое апреля.

Genitive case

He was born on 21st February, 1958. – Он родился двадцать первого февраля, одна тысяча девятьсот пятьдесят восьмого.

I met my husband for the first time on 8th April. – Я впервые познакомилась с моим мужем восьмого апреля.

We met with the new marketing manager on 5th May. – Мы встретились с новым менеджером по маркетингу пятого мая.

My birthday is on 14th October. – У меня день рождения четырнадцатого октября.

The graduation ceremony took place on 3 1st of July. – Выпускная церемония состоялась тридцать первого июля.

Her birthday will be on 20th August. – Её день рождения будет двадцатого августа.

The loan repayment is due on3rd September. – Срок погашения кредита – до третьего сентября.

The project will be delivered on 25th March. – Проект будет реализован двадцать пятого марта.

The application must be submitted by the 2 2nd of January. – Заявка должна быть подана до двадцать второго января.

9. Following fractions, with the genitive singular or plural applying in accordance with the number specified as indicated above.

For example:

A quarter of the population lives in rural areas. – Четверть населения проживает в сельской местности.

A third of those polled believe that the taxation level is too high. – Треть опрошенных считают, что уровень налогообложения слишком высок.

Half of the students at the school go on to study at university. – Половина студентов школы продолжают обучение в университете.

10. After a large number of prepositions, a number of which may be used with other cases.

There are more prepositions associated with the genitive case than any other case.

Russian preposition

English translation

Preposition in context


without, exclusive of

I can’t live without you. – Я не могу жить без тебя .

Could I have tea without sugar please? – Можно мне чаю без сахара, пожалуйста?

Without a doubt , he is the greatest footballer of all time. – Без сомнения, он величайший футболист всех времен.

The price is exclusive of VAT. – Цена без учета НДС.

Note that the final letter ‘-з’ of без, becomes a voiceless consonant taking on the sound ‘с’ (the equivalent of the English ‘s’) before the other voiceless consonants к-, п-, с-, т-, ф- and ш. For example: без пробле́мы, без са́хара.

Before a word which begins with ч-, the final letter ‘-з’ takes on a sound approximately equivalent to the consonant ‘щ’.


near, close to, outside of, in the vicinity of

I live the near the train station. – Я живу близ железнодорожного вокзала.

The village is about an hour outside of the city. – Деревня находится примерно в часе езды близ города.

They purchased a houseoff the Champs-Élysées. – Приобрели дом близ Елисейских Полей.


near, close to, outside, around

We are on a street near the port. – Мы на улице вблизи порта.

The hotel is close to the most popular tourist attractions . – Отель находится вблизи самых популярных туристических достопримечательностей .

Unemployment is close to historic lows. – Безработица вблизи исторических минимумов.

We have an office based just outside of St Petersburg. – У нас есть офис непосредственно вблизи Санкт-Петербурга.

It can just be exhausting being around him . – Просто быть вблизи него может быть утомительно.

в виде

as a(n), in the form of, as a form of, in terms of, by way of, through

He drew a picture of his brother as a donkey. – Он нарисовал изображение своего брата в виде ослика.

We will provide aid in the form offood. – Мы предоставим помощь в виде продовольствия.

A cane was used as a form of punishment. –

Розга использовали в виде наказания.

There have been improvements in terms ofdesign and quality. – Произошли улучшения в виде дизайна и качества.

The law was changed by way of an amendment . – Закон был изменен в виде поправки.

The Government has promised to protect employees through an update to labour laws. – Правительство обещало защищать работников в виде обновления трудового законодательства .


on account of, considering, given the, in light of

The law was criticised on account of its discriminatory effect. – Закон был подвергнут критике ввиду его дискриминационного воздействия.

Considering the magnitude of the problem , a change to the law is necessary. – Ввиду масштабов проблемы, необходимо изменить закон.

Given the sensitive nature of the discussion, the business men had to speak in private. – Ввиду деликатного характера дискуссии деловые люди должны были говорить наедине.

Despite her young age when she applied to the university, the university accepted her application in light of her aptitude. – Несмотря на юный возраст, когда она поступила в университет, университет принял её заявление ввиду её способностей.


along (the length of), down, backwards, lined

She walked along the seashore as the sun set. – Она шла вдоль берега моря, когда заходило солнце.

I thought there might be some shopsdown this road. – Я подумал, что вдоль этой дороги могут быть магазины.

We went down to the river yesterday evening. – Вчера вечером мы пошли вдоль реки.

I know the lines of that script like the back of my hand. – Я знаю строки этого сценария вдоль и поперёк. (Literally: I know the lines of that script backwards and forwards.)

You can rent one of the many beach cabins along the coastline. – Вы можете арендовать один из многочисленных пляжных домиков вдоль береговой линии.

It is a beautiful street lined with trees. – Это красивая улица вдоль которой растут деревья.


instead of, as a substitute for, in place of

Instead of lemon juice, you can use white wine vinegar. – Вместо лимонного сока можно использовать белый винный уксус.

You can use margarine as a substitute for butter. – Вы можете использовать маргарин вместо масла.

I’m here in place of his parents. – Я здесь вместо его родителей.


beyond, outside, out of, away from, without

The DNA proves it beyond doubt. – ДНК доказывает это вне всякого сомнения.

There are many things to do outside of the city here. – Здесь есть чем заняться вне города.

I might be out of reach for a few days. – Я буду вне досягаемости пару дней.

Out of context , it looks bad. – Вне контекста это выглядит плохо.

He is not above criticism. – Он не вне критики.

Some politicians behave as though they are above the law. – Некоторые политики ведут себя так, как будто они вне закона.

We needed to talk somewhere away from the house. – Мы должны были поговорить где-нибудь вне дома.

Dealing with the challenges of long-distance learning for children is, without doubt, a major priority for the Government. – Решение проблем, связанных с дистанционным обучением детей, вне всякого сомнения, является одним из главных приоритетов правительства.

It is difficult to understand the wordwithout any context. – Трудно понять слово вне контекста.

Documentation was stored off-site in a secure facility. – Документация хранилась вне офиса в безопасном месте.


inside, within

I left my keys inside the classroom. – Я оставил ключи внутри классе.

The programme is intended to combat social exclusion within the community. – Программа направлена на борьбу с социальным отчуждением внутри общины.


by, near, next to

I live by the university. – Я живу возле университета.

We live near the supermarket. – Мы живем возле супермаркета.

Have a look at that man, standing next to the exit. – Взгляни на этого человека, стоящего возле выхода.


about, (a)round (referring to movements in circles or from point A to point B), surrounding

Don’t make a [fuss / big deal] about it. – Не поднимай шум вокруг этого.

We like to walk around the city at night. – Мы любим гулять вокруг города по ночам.

Just be honest; stop beating around the bush. – Просто будь честен, перестань бить вокруг да около.

Let me know when you’re free; I can work around your schedule. – Дай мне знать, когда освободишься, я смогу работать вокруг вашего расписания.

There are beautiful flowers all around us. – Вокруг нас красивые цветы.

There was a lot of suspicion surrounding the circumstances of his death. – Было много подозрений вокруг обстоятельств его смерти.

во время

during, at the time of, in the, throughout, whilst, under

In the run-up to and during the elections, there was a lot of social instability. – В преддверии и во время выборов наблюдалась большая социальная нестабильность.

Where were you at the time of the robbery? – Где вы были во время ограбления?

We came up with many new ideas in the meeting. – Мы придумали много новых идей во время встречи.

I have been honest with you throughout our marriage. – Я была честна с тобой во время нашего брака.


in front of, ahead (of), before, precede

The woman sat in front of the man in the bus. – Женщина сидела впереди мужчины в автобусе.

He is always ten steps ahead of everyone else. – Он всегда на десять шагов впереди всех.

I need to get going; havefive-hour drive ahead. – Мне нужно ехать, впереди пять часов езды.

Don’t run before you can walk! – Не беги впереди паровоза!

My reputation precedes me , apparently. – Похоже, моя слава бежит впереди меня.

в продолжение

during, throughout, in continuation of, as a follow-up to, in keeping with, over the course of

During the coronavirus lockdown , freedom of movement was limited. – В продолжение блокировки коронавируса свобода передвижения была ограничена.

Throughout the Second World War , Switzerland pursued a policy of neutrality. – В продолжение Второй мировой войны Швейцария придерживалась политики нейтралитета.

This report was released as a follow-up to last year’s assessment results . – Этот доклад был выпущен в продолжение прошлогодней оценки.

In continuation of our social development work , the programme has been established in another region. – В продолжение нашей работы в области социального развития эта программа была создана в другом регионе.

In keeping with this trend , the unemployment rate for the region as a whole rose by 1 per cent. –В продолжение этой тенденции уровень безработицы в регионе в целом возрос на 1 процент.

They refurbished the house over the course of six months. – Они отремонтировали дом в продолжение шести месяцев.


like, it looks like, (a/some) kind of (a/some) sort of, kind of, kind of like/similar to, kind of, along the lines of, not unlike

We need a woman like her in power. – Нам нужна такая женщина, вроде нее, у власти.

You can set a kind of filter on that particular item alone in Excel. – В Excel вы можете установить нечто вроде фильтра только для этого элемента.

Memories of past sweethearts are kind of like associations of places or songs with certain feelings; sometimes beautiful, sometimes sad and sometimes awful. – Воспоминания о прошлых возлюбленных это что-то вроде ассоциаций мест или песен с определенными чувствами; иногда красивые, иногда грустные, а иногда ужасные. –

He had some sort of mental breakdown after the breakup. – У него был что-то вроде психического срыва после расставания.

I felt kind of guilty after I said that. – Я почувствовал вроде как чувство вины после того, как сказал это.

I was thinking more along the lines of drinks and a meal at a restaurant. – Я больше думал о чём-то вроде напитков и еды в ресторане.

The 1918 ‘Spanish flu’ pandemic led to civil unrest, not unlike today with the coronavirus pandemic. – Пандемия “испанского гриппа” 1918 года привела к гражданским беспорядкам, почти таким же, вроде сегодняшней пандемии коронавируса.


owing to, consequently/as a consequence, therefore, thus, hence, resulting in, resulting from, as a result of, thereby, on account of, due to, because of (the), through, following, since, leaving, in the wake of, by virtue of, (arising / arose) out of

The conference had to be suspended owing to the sudden illness of the main speaker. – Конференцию пришлось прервать вследствие внезапной болезни основного докладчика.

The interest rate on his loans were very high and consequently he found it difficult to keep up with the monthly payments. – Процентная ставка по его кредитам была очень высокой, и вследствие этого он с трудом справлялся с ежемесячными платежами.

The outlook for the coming months are quite bleak and it is therefore imperative that nations find a way to manage the debts accumulated during the pandemic. – Перспективы на предстоящие месяцы являются весьма неопределенными, вследствие чего необходимо, чтобы государства нашли возможность рационального регулирования задолженности, накопленной во время пандемии.

Perceived foreignness could also be used as a grounds for discrimination and thus names are concealed by the application system. – Воспринимаемая чужеродность также может быть использована в качестве основания для дискриминации, и, вследствие этого, имена скрываются системой подачи заявлений.

I fell off my bike yesterday hence the bruises. – Вчера я упал с велосипеда, вследствие чего у меня синяки.

The road infrastructure is poor, resulting in many car accidents each month. – Дорожная инфраструктура плохая, вследствие чего каждый месяц происходит много автомобильных аварий.

There was a court caseresulting from this incident. – Вследствие этого инцидента произошел судебный процесс.

The flight was delayedas a result of the fog. – Вылет задержался вследствие тумана.

You can purchase food in bulk, thereby reducing the cost. – Вы можете приобретать продукты питания оптом, вследствие чего снижаются затраты.

The picnic was cancelled on account ofthe rain. – Пикник был отменен вследствие дождя.

The flight was delayed due to bad weather. – Рейс был задержан вследствие плохой погоды.

She fainted because of the heat. – Она упала в обморок вследствие жары.

I eat at that restaurant because of the great food and atmosphere. – Я обедаю в этом ресторане вследствие отличной кухни и атмосферы.

The organisation was held responsible through its failure to act. – Организация была признана ответственной вследствие бездействия.

Following the financial crisis , many people lost their jobs. – Вследствие финансового кризиса многие люди потеряли работу.

We requested an extension to the deadline since the project could not be delivered on time. – Мы просили продлить этот срок, вследствие того что проект не мог быть сдан в срок.

A pipe burst, leaving a large part of the population without access to a water. – Труба лопнула, вследствие чего значительная часть населения лишилась доступа к воде.

Many people suffered in the wake of the violence. – Многие люди пострадали вследствие насилия.

She is permitted to vote by virtue of her age. – Ей разрешено голосовать вследствие своего возраста.

The project arose out of concern for vulnerable children. – Проект возник вследствие обеспокоенности по поводу уязвимых детей.

в течение

during, within, over the course of, in the course of

He was absent during the first week back at school. – Он отсутствовал в течение первой недели в школе.

Claims must be submitted within the specified time limit. – Претензии должны быть поданы в течение указанного срока.

She was very uncooperative throughout the entire process. – Она была очень несговорчивой в течение всего процесса.

The story takes place over the course of one year. – История происходит в течение одного года.

In the course of just six months, the team had already achieved a lot. – В течение всего лишь шести месяцев команда уже многого добилась.


for (the benefit of someone or something),

for* (to express purpose or use)

*‘For’ is often not explicity stated in the English translation.


Construction: для + noun

I bought a present for my nephew. – Я купила подарок для племянника.

Nail polish – Лак для ногтей

Dishwashing liquid – Жидкость для мытья посуды

A hand towel – Полотенце для рук

Fines may be necessary to encourage compliance with the law. – Штрафы могут быть необходимы для поощрения соблюдения закона.

These methods are used to eliminate bias in the selection process. – Эти методы используются для исключения смещения в процессе отбора.



until, to (meaning until), to (implying motion towards a place), as far as, up to, pending

I want to finish my work before noon. – Я хочу закончить работу до полудня.

I’ll see you tomorrow! – До завтра! (Literally: Until tomorrow!)

I’m going to look after her cat until she returns from holiday. – Я буду присматривать за ее кошкой, до её возвращения с каникул.

I work from eight in the morning [to / until] six in the evening. – Я работаю с восьми утра до шести вечера.

It is difficult to walk to the centre from here because there are no pedestrian paths. – Отсюда трудно дойти пешком до центра, потому что здесь нет пешеходных дорожек.

They walked as far as twenty-five miles to see the glaciers up close. – Они прошли до двадцати пяти миль, чтобы увидеть ледники вблизи.

The museum is free for children up to the age of twelve. – Музей бесплатен для детей до двенадцати лет.

She was suspended pending a full inquiry. – Она была отстранена до полного расследования.

за исключением

except for, apart from, with the exception of, excluding, other than, save, aside from, beyond, barring, besides, minus, exclusive of, but* (*meaning apart from)

No one is allowed in her except staff. – Никто не допускается в нее, за исключением персонала.

Aside from Sarah , no one else knows our secret. – За исключением Сары, никто больше не знает нашего секрета.

из, изо

from*, out of, out from, of**, with, in, on, at

*As the preposition ‘from’ in phrases involving the verb ‘to leave’, where ‘from’ is not translated in English.

to leave ‘from’, left ‘from’

**As the preposition ‘of’ in phrases involving the determiners ‘one of’, or ‘some of’.

Note that the preposition в is used to indicate ‘to where’ a person is going.

I took a train fromLondon to Paris. – Я села на поезд из Лондона в Париж.

From now on, you won’t be allowed to leave this house until you can prove that you can be trusted. – Отныне тебе не разрешается выходить из этого дома, пока ты не докажешь, что тебе можно доверять.

He took his phone out of his pocket. – Он вынул телефон из кармана.

I need to get out of the city sometimes. – Мне нужно иногда уезжать из города.

Her outburst came out ofnowhere. – Её вспышка появилась из ниоткуда.

We examined the video recording of everybody that came out [of / from] the bank. – Мы просмотрели видеозаписи всех, кто вышел из банка.

I can’t believe that those words came out of her mouth. – Не могу поверить, что эти слова вырвались у неё изо рта.

He came out [of / from] the classroom with a scowl on his face. – Он вышел из класса с нахмуренным лицом.

Don’t worry about him; he is with us. – Не волнуйся о нем он из нас.

He is a well-renowned surgeon in New York. – Он известный хирург из Нью-Йорка.

Even on the simplest of political issues, he has demonstrated his incompetence. – Даже из решения самых простых политических вопросов он продемонстрировал свою некомпетентность.

I was just speaking with a friendat a private wealth managementfirm. – Я только что разговаривал с другом из частной компании по управлению капиталом.

Education is one of the key factors in development. – Образование является одним изключевых факторов развития.

He just left his apartment a few minutes ago. – Он вышел из квартиры пару минут назад.

She left the organisation at the end of last year. – Она ушла из организации в конце прошлого года.

I think that one of you needs to talk to Rebecca. – Думаю, одному из вас нужно поговорить с Ребеккой.

Some of us have to work for a living. – Некоторые из нас на самом деле должны зарабатывать себе на жизнь.

I recognise some of those girls. – Я узнаю некоторых из этих девушек.


from behind , because of, on account of

He was attacked from behind. – На него напали из-за спины.

The football match was cancelled because of the heavy rain. – Футбольный матч отменили из-за сильного дождя.

It isn’t fair to condemn the entire piece of work on account of one mistake. – Несправедливо осуждать всю работу из-за одной ошибки.


from beaneath, from under(neath), out of

Spirit is effective for getting the paint out from underneath your fingernails. – Спирт эффективен для выведения краски из-под ногтей.


except for, apart from, with the exception of, excluding, other than, save, aside from, beyond, barring, besides, minus, exclusive of, but* (*meaning apart from)

There was no one at the school apart from the security guard. – В школе не было никого, кроме охранника.

No one came to class but me. – Никто не приходил на занятия, кроме меня.



Weeds have grown around the grave. – Кругом могилы выросли сорняки.


by, past

They drove past a beautiful cottage. – Они проехали мимо красивого коттеджа.

He walked by the bush without noticing me. – Он прошел мимо куста, не заметив меня.

недалеко от

not far from, close to, near (when indicating location), at about, at around, at approximately (when indicating time)

The house is not far from the main square. – Дом находится недалеко от главной площади.

We can go at around six in the evening. – Мы можем поехать недалеко от шести вечера.


the day before, on the eve of, in the run up to

The day before my wedding I was very nervous. – Накануне свадьбы я очень нервничал.

The defendant fled the country on the eve of the trial. – Подсудимый бежал из страны накануне суда.

The candidates did a lot of preparation in the run up to the election. – Кандидаты провели большую подготовку накануне выборов.


against, opposite

There was a tick against his name. – Там была галочка напротив его имени.

The museum opposite the station is under renovation. – Музей напротив станции реконструируется.


about, regarding

I don’t see what the [big deal/ hype] isabout it. – Я не понимаю эту шумиху насчёт этого.

We write regarding your recent job application. – Мы пишемнасчёт вашего недавнего заявления о приеме на работу.

не считая

except for, apart from, with the exception of, excluding, other than, save, aside from, beyond, barring, besides, minus, exclusive of, but*, not counting, not to mention

*Meaning apart from.

Other than the occasional fight, we have a strong relationship. – Не считая случайных ссор, у нас крепкие отношения.

I don’t want to do it anymore because it is exhausting, not to mention costly. – Я больше не хочу этого делать, потому что это утомительно, и это не считая затрат.

The report was around fifty pages long, not counting the annexes.- Объем доклада составлял около пятидесяти страниц, не считая приложений.


near , about, around

I will meet you near the library. – Встретимся около библиотеки.

I tried to restart my car for about thirty minutes with no luck. – Я пытался завести машину около тридцати минут безуспешно.

You have around ten minutes to get to the platform before the train leaves. – У вас есть около десяти минут, чтобы добраться до платформы до отправления поезда.

от, ото

from , as a result of, because of, with,


*With regard to medicine, as для would imply a desire to get the illness the medication is intended to alleviate the symptoms of, or cure. ‘For’ is typically not explicity stated in the English translation.

Note that an о is added after от for ease of pronunciation before words beginning with awkward consonant clusters. For example: мн-, вс- and сн-.

You received a letter from the bank today. – Сегодня вы получили письмо от банка.

He couldn’t contain himselffrom excitement. – Он не мог сдержать себя от волнения.

She was paralysed with fear. – Она была парализована от страха.

Take some cough medicine for your cold. – Прими какое-нибудь лекарство от простуды.

Did you remember to take your hay-fever allergy medication today? – Ты не забыл сегодня принять лекарство от аллергии на сенную лихорадку?


regarding, as regards, with regard to, with respect to, in relation to, about, concerning, relative to, as to, regarding whether, relatively (meaning quite), fairly, rather, reasonably, over, against

There is a lot of uncertainty regarding the future of the factory. – Существует много неопределенности относительно будущего фабрики.

She was right about him; he isn’t trustworthy at all. – Она была права относительно него, он совсем не заслуживает доверия.

I have few qualms concerning the safety of my child at the school. – У меня мало замечаний относительно безопасности моего ребенка в школе.

At present, the dollar has a more volatile exchange rate relative to the euro. – В настоящее время курс доллара относительно евро является более нестабильным.

There were some concerns as to the candidate’s suitability for the role. – Были высказаны некоторые опасения относительно пригодности кандидата для этой вакансии.

The country is [relatively / fairly / rather] corrupt. – Страна является относительно коррумпированной.

She is a reasonably capable student. – Она относительно способная ученица.

The parties had a dispute over the terms of the contract. – У сторон возник спор относительно условий договора.


behind, at the back of

The people behind me were so rude! – Люди позади меня были такими грубыми!

He had a bruise at the back of his neck. – У него был синяк позади шеи.


except for, apart from, with the exception of, excluding, other than, save, aside from, beyond, barring, besides, minus, exclusive of, but* (*meaning apart from)

Aside from (in) chemistry , my school grades were terrible. – Помимо химии, мои школьные оценки были ужасными.

With the exception of you , Anna, I don’t trust anyone here. – Помимо тебя, Анна, я никому здесь не доверяю.



She laid across her husband’schest. – Она лежала поперёк груди мужа.

по поводу

about, over, regarding, concerning, as regards

I want to speak to you about a new business idea I have. – Я хочу поговорить с тобой по поводу новой бизнес-идеи, которая у меня есть.

There was a lot of criticism over the way in which the the Government handled the issue. – Было высказано много критических замечаний по поводу того, как правительство решает этот вопрос.

If you would like to hear more information regarding the project, please get in touch with us. – Если вы хотите получить более подробную информацию по поводу проекта, пожалуйста, свяжитесь с нами.



Where in English someone might say ‘ladies first’ or ‘please’ followed by a motion for you to enter a door being held open, in Russian, the following exchange may take place instead:

A: Проходите, пожалуйста. (Literally: Please go through.)

B: нет, вы первые (Literally: No, you first)

A: Только после вас. (Literally: Only after you)

по случаю

on the occasion of, to mark, to celebrate, to commemorate, in celebration of

A leaving ceremony will take place to mark the final day of the school leavers. – По случаю заключительного дня выпускников школ состоится церемония выхода из школы.

A monument was erected to commemorate the lives lost after the bombing. – Установлен памятник по случаю гибели людей после бомбардировки.


among, in the middle of

He got up and walked out in the middle of the interview. – Он встал и вышел посреди собеседования.

Her phone was found among his things. – Её телефон был найден посреди его вещей.


through, via, by means of, by the use of, with the aid of, by virtue of, by way of, with the help of

You can submit your application via the online portal. – Вы можете подать заявку посредством интернет-портала.

We met through a dating app. – Мы познакомились посредством приложения для свиданий.

I studied with the aid of flashcards. – Я учился посредством флэш-карт.


against (not in favour of / in a competitive sense), compared to, to face / facing, contrary to, opposed to, opposing, versus, upon (in the sense of ‘against’)

My parents are completely against the idea . – Мои родители полностью против этой идеи.

The red team played against the blue team. – Красная команда играла против синей команды.

We received eight hundred applications this year, compared to five hundred applications last year. – В этом году мы получили восемьсот заявок против пятисот заявок в прошлом году.

He faces allegations of bribery. – Против него выдвинуты обвинения во взяточничестве. (Literally: Against him, charges have been brought of bribery.)

It was tough to walk facing the wind. – Трудно было ходить против ветра.

She was forced to work contrary to her will. – Она была вынуждена работать против своей воли.

I’m not opposed to it in principle. – В принципе я не против этого.

A few members of staff expressed views opposing the new proposals. – Несколько сотрудников высказались против новых предложений.

It’s his word versus yours. – Это его слово против твоего.

The police fired upon the protestors. – Полиция открыла огонь против протестующих.


for (the sake of), for the benefit of, because of, in favour of

After ten in the evening, the gate was closed for the safety of the children. – После десяти часов вечера ворота были закрыты ради безопасности детей.

You need to take this step for your sake. – Ты должен сделать этот шаг ради себя.

A new park is being developed f or the benefit of the community. – Новый парк создается ради блага общества.

People come to this restaurant because of the amazing panoramic view. – Люди приходят в этот ресторан ради удивительного панорамного вида.

I gave up my career because of you. – Я отказалась от своей карьеры ради тебя.

We abandoned the old approach to recruitment, which was based on who applicants knew, in favour of a newer and fairer system, based on an applicant’s suitability for the position. – Мы отказались от старого подхода к подбору персонала, который основывался на том, кто из кандидатов знает, ради более новой и справедливой системы, основанной на пригодности кандидата к данной должности.

c, со

from, of, since, with

Note that c may be followed by both the instrumental case and the genitive case.

I switched from buying genetically-modified products to organic products. – Я перешел с покупки генетически модифицированных продуктов на органические.

I was dying of laughter when I heard the story. – Я умирала со смеху, когда услышала эту историю.

I have known her since I was a child. – Я знаю её с детства.

Today, I met with all of the parents of my students. – Сегодня я встретился со всеми родителями своих учеников.


over, above , beyond, in excess of, more than, on top, extra, super, in addition to, exceed, exceeding

I overspent my budget this month. – Я потратил сотню фунтов сверх бюджета в этом месяце. (Literally: I spent a hundred pounds over my budget this month)

Your insurance protection may be extended beyond the initial period of one year for a small fee. – Ваша страховая защита может быть продлена сверх первоначального периода в один год за небольшую плату.

He was caught driving above the legal speed limit. – Он был пойман, когда ехал сверх разрешенной скорости.

Her luggage was thirty kilograms in excess of the airline’s limit. – Её багаж был на тридцать килограммов сверх лимита авиакомпании .

I waited for you for more than two hours in the rain. – Я ждал тебя сверх двух часов под дождем.

On top of the permitted luggage allowance , you may carry one additional bag. – Сверх допустимой нормы багажа вы можете провезти одну дополнительную сумку.

Some patients require extra monitoring. – Некоторые пациенты требуют сверх наблюдение.

We had to work extra hours last week. – На прошлой неделе нам пришлось работать сверх установленного рабочего времени. (Literally: We had to work more than the established working hours)

She works super hard. – Она трудится сверх усердно.

The company will cover your food expenses, in addition to a return flight home. – Компания возьмет на себя расходы на питание сверх стоимости обратного рейса домой.

There is overtime pay during busy periods when staff are required to commit to hours which exceed the established working hours. -Сверхурочные оплачиваются в периоды занятости, когда сотрудники обязаны брать на работу часы сверх установленного рабочего времени.

Card transactions are only permitted for transactions exceeding five pounds. – Карточные операции разрешены только для операций сверх пяти фунтов стерлингов.


behind, at the back, at the rear

A handsome man sat behind me on the train. – Красавчик сидел сзади меня в поезде.

He sat at the back of the car. – Он сидел сзади машины.

The lights at the rear of the car were broken. – Свет сзади машины был разбит.


on the outside of

On the outside of the gate was a heavy-duty padlock. – Снаружи ворот был тяжелый висячий замок.


among(st),from among, in the middle of, within, between, across, (circulated / distributed) to, amid(st), throughout, targeting, affecting, from among, including, …of which

Among(st) the deceased was a six-year-old girl. – Среди погибших была шестилетняя девочка.

I woke up three times in the middle of the night. – Я просыпался три раза среди ночи.

There were many problems within the company, which contributed to its financial woes. – Среди компании было много проблем, которые способствовали её финансовым затруднениям.

We organised a debate between our school and the school in the next town. – Мы организовали дебаты среди нашей школы и школы в соседнем городе.

In order to determine the average cost of living, statistics were taken across a wide range of countries. – Чтобы определить среднюю стоимость жизни, были взяты статистические данные среди широкого круга стран.

Did you see the draft document I circulated to everyone on Tuesday? – Вы видели проект документа, который я распространил среди всех во вторник?

The hotel is located amidst a verdant forest. – Отель расположен среди зеленого леса.

Amidst all the confusion involved in buying one’s first home, it is easy to overlook certain things. – Среди всей этой путаницы , связанной с покупкой первого дома, легко упустить из виду некоторые вещи.

The news spread throughout the village quickly. – Новости быстро распространились среди жителей деревни.

There are three universities in the city, [including / one of which] offers night classes for those with a full-time job. – В городе есть три университета, среди которых один предлагает вечерние курсы для тех, кто работает полный рабочий день.


by, next to, near (all of which are in regard to objects), at / to [persons house], from,

to have

I am standing by the café. – Я стою у кафе.

I’m at George’s. – Я у Джорджа.

I’ll come to yours. – Я приду у тебя.

I got a lovely present from my sister. – Я получила прекрасный подарок у сестры.

I have a big bed. – У меня большая кровать.

Note that when used independently, the following prepositions function as adverbs:

вблизи, внутри, вокруг, впереди, кругом, напротив, позади, поперёк, против, сзади and снаружи.

For example:

The pharmacy is opposite. – Аптека напротив.

He ran outside. – Он выбежал снаружи.

11. Following the negation of transitive verbs (those verbs which take direct objects) which normally take the accusative case, where the object is an abstract or unspecified thing.

Questions: Кого? – Who? Чего? – What?

Russian grammar makes use of the double negative when expressing the absence of something.

For example:

I don’t have anything. – У меня ничего нет.

A literal translation of the quote displays the double negative more clearly:

I don’t have nothing.

This would be completely ungrammatical in English, where double negation is not a feature of the grammar and would basically amount to a declaration that the subject did indeed have something in their possession. However, that doesn’t stop some people from saying it in British English at least! Explore further examples of double negation in Russian below.

For example:

That doesn’t prove anything! – Это ничего не доказывает!

I didn’t make a single mistake. – Я не сделал ни одной ошибки.

I can’t hear a (single) word. – Я не слышу ни слова.

The accusative case may also be used following the negation of transitive verb nouns, especially in the everyday spoken language.

For example, compare:

He never eats fish. – Он никогда не ест рыбу. (Accusative case)

He never eats fish. – Он никогда не ест рыбы. (Genitive case)

More examples:

My nephew loves cars. – Мой племянник любит машины.

I try to avoid meat. – Я стараюсь избегать мяса.

12. When expressing the absence of someone or something.

The construction used requires the noun or pronoun to be in the genitive case and the use of the negative particles не or нет.

Note that the nominative case negative pronouns никто́ – no one / nobody and ничто́nothing, become никого́ and ничего́ respectively, in the genitive case.

The director isn’t here at the moment; can I take a message for him? – Директора сейчас нет, могу я передать ему сообщение?

Tomorrow there is no football practice. – Завтра нет футбольной тренировки.

Yesterday, there were no lessons at school due to the snow. – Вчера в школе не было уроков из-за снега.

I checked the room, but nobody was there. – Я проверил комнату, но там никого не было.

There is nothing more to say. – Больше нечего сказать.

There is nothing to do outside of the tourist season here. – Здесь нечего делать вне туристического сезона.

It is also possible to negate in passive or impersonal constructions, which lack a grammatical subject. In this case, the logical subject (the person or thing responsible for an expressed or implied action) is placed in the genitive case.

Aren’t you going to the party? – Тебя не будет на вечеринке?

I wasn’t at home when they attempted to deliver the parcel. – Меня не было дома, когда они пытались доставить посылку.

He already left the office. – Его уже выпустили из офиса.

However, the meaning may differ from an equivalent construction of the sentence using the nominative case personal pronouns (я, ты, он, она, оно, мы, вы and они), with the genitive case personal pronouns implying that something did not occur as expected.

Attempting to use the genitive construction in sentences such as ‘Я никогда не был…- I have never been…,’ is not grammatically acceptable.

13. In order to negate a part of the sentence, which is not the verb.

For example:

She washed her hands incorrectly. – Она вымыла руки не как следует. (Incorrectly is negated)

I didn’t receive so much as one useful piece of advice from the advisor. – Я не получил ни одного полезного совета от советника. (One is negated)

14. To enquire about an aspect of something.

For example:

What colour is your new dress? – Какого цвета ваше новое платье?

What is the gender of the word ‘sea’ in Russian? – Какого пола слово ‘море’ в русском языке?

15. To indicate the origin or starting point of a motion or movement in both a physical and abstract sense (that is, from somewhere) with the prepositions из , с and от.

Questions: Откуда? – From where? От кого? – From whom?

For example:

I just came back from work. – Я только что вернулся с работы.

He just got back from holiday. – Он только что вернулся из отпуска.

We just returned from the shopping centre. – Мы только что вернулись от торгового центра.

I flew into Moscow from London. – Я прилетел в Москву из Лондона.

I got a new bag for my birthday from my parents. – Я получила новую сумку на день рождения от родителей.

The boys ran away from us after we threatened to tell our parents what they were doing. – Мальчики убежали от нас после того, как мы пригрозили рассказать родителям, что они делают.

He is hiding from the police. – Он прячется от полиции.

16. To say that someone is ‘away’ or ‘absent’.

For example:

I will not be in the office this week. – На этой неделе меня не будет в офисе.

My sister isn’t at home at the moment. – Моей сестры сейчас нет дома.

They were not at home . – Их не было дома.

17. In response to the questions: Какой? Какая? Какое? Какие? – what?

For example:

What theatre is this? – Какой это театр?

It is the St Petersburg Academic Philharmonia building called ‘Shostakovitch’. – Это здание Санкт-Петербургской академической филармонии под названием ‘Шостакович’.

What street are we on? – Какая у нас улица?

It is Zhukov street. – Это улица Жукова.

18. To describe a part or portion of a whole using a compound noun structure.

The first part of the compound noun makes reference to a specific portion of the whole and the second part, which clarifies the whole of the noun, takes the genitive case.

For example:

The town centre is very small. – Центр города очень маленький.

He broke a wine glass. – Он разбил бокал вина.

You wrote down telephone number incorrectly. – Вы неправильно записали номер телефона.

The table leg is broken – Ножка стола сломана.

I broke the door handle. – Я сломал ручку двери.

A tree branch fell on the car during the storm. – Ветка дерева упала на машину во время шторма.

Could I buy a bottle of water please? – Могу я купить бутылку воды?

The roof of the house must be repaired. – Крыша дома должна быть отремонтирована.

He threw a piece of wood into the fire. – Он бросил кусок дерева в огонь.

The child ate a slice of an apple. – Ребенок ест кусочек яблока.

The company sold part of its real estate holdings. – Компания продала часть своих холдингов недвижимости.

19. With the ‘partitive function’ of the genitive case.

The partitive case answers the question чегоof / from what?

Russian primarily makes use of the partitive genitive with nouns, adjectives, pronouns and numerals, when referring to having apart of something (translated into English as ‘some’, ‘any’, or ‘a few’). All uncountable nouns and verbs involving a request for, the consumption of, or an offer or provision of, a part of some substance, liquid, ingredient, or a specific quantity of similar objects, trigger the use of the partitive case.

For example, when we talk about eating ice-cream from a tub, a loaf of bread, a box of cereal, drinking tea, or using envelopes, stamps, matches and cigarettes etc, we generally have a certain quantity of the whole in mind. That is, it is unlikely that we intend to consume or use everything in one go. To clarify this, the noun is placed in the partitive genitive case in Russian. Note that the partitive case does not apply to animate nouns.

For example:

Would you like some juice? – Может, вам налитьсоку? (Literal translation: Maybe, (for) you (I can) pour juice?

As the spelling of nouns in the partitive genitive rarely differs from the standard genitive, it is generally not considered to be an independent grammatical case in the Russian language, hence you may hear reference to it as the ‘second genitive’.

However, the partitive genitive may call for the use of the endings or , instead of the standard genitive endings of or . For this reason, it does not completely align with the standard genitive case, but it may be described as a partitive function of the standard genitive case.

As can be seen below, these spelling changes typically occur with a limited number of singular masculine nouns of the second declension , ending in a consonant.

English translation

Nominative form

Standard genitive singular form

Partitive genitive form

















coffee (diminutive form)



















песку (not to be confused with the dative case form)





















Compare the following:

She drank a cup of tea. – Она выпилачашку чая. (Standard genitive case spelling)

She drank a cup of tea. – Она выпилачашку чаю. (Partitive genitive case spelling)

Would you like a bottle of water? – Хотитебутылку воды? (Standard genitive and partitive genitive case spelling)

In the last example, there is no change in the form of the word water, whether the standard genitive is used, or the partitive genitive is used.

In modern Russian, the use of the partitive case over the standard genitive case is a personal choice as both refer to a portion of something. Barring an encounter with the grammar police, a native speaker is unlikely to object to, or notice a preference for either case. However, note that the genitive form is now preferred by what we might call the ‘intellectual’ class, for the purposes of indicating the partitive, with the partitive form being associated with informality.

Given the fact that the partitive genitive form largely coincides with the standard genitive form, there is often no way of telling which form is used by a native speaker until they construct a sentence using a word where the spelling rules differ.

For example:

Would you like some sugar? – Вы хотите сахар а? (Standard genitive case spelling)

Would you like some sugar? – Вы хотите сахар у? (Partitive genitive case spelling)

However, the standard genitive endings -a / are used when reference is not made to a specific quantity.

For example:

I can’t stand the taste of cheese. – Я не выношу вкус сыр a.

He doesn’t like the smell of honey. – Ему не нравится запах мёдa.

We don’t teach our students the importance of financial responsibility. – Мы не учим наших студентов важности финансовой ответственности.

The price of gold has fallen. – Цена золот а упала.

factory, an enterprise produces a lot of glue, but you can only buy glueпредприятие производят много клея, но купить можно только клею

Both the standard genitive case and the partitive genitive case may follow a qualifying adjective , but the standard genitive is more commonly used.

For example (qualifying adjective in bold) :

He offered me a cup of strong, black tea. – Он предложил мне чашку крепкого черного чая.

I didn’t choose expensive tobacco. – Я не выбирал дорог ого табака.

The accusative case may be used instead of the partitive or standard genitive case forms when referring to the whole.

For example, to a family member you might ask for a portion of what they are eating:

Could I have some bread, please? – Дай (informal = give) мне хлеба, пожалуйста.

Whereas, at a bakery, you might request an entire loaf:

Could I have bread, please? – Дайте (formal = give) мне хлеб, пожалуйста.

In certain instances, the partitive genitive rather than the standard genitive, is necessary.

For example:


English translation

ни разу

never, not even once, not once

Выпьем чайку

Literal translation: Let’s drink tea

English equivalent: Let’s have a cuppa

без году неделя

Literal translation: A week without a year

English equivalents: To have little-to-no experience under one’s belt , to be wet behind the ears , to not know the ins and outs of something

Often used with negative connotations to describe those who are largely inexperienced in something, or unfamiliar with something.

Нашего полку прибыло.

Literal translation: Our regiment has increased in size.

English equivalent: Our group/team/circle has expanded.

Used to describe the growth of a class of persons with similar characteristics or a common bond. The types of people who might use it include a colleague following the recruitment of a new person, or an expectant mother in an expression of joy at the potential expansion of her family unit.

С миру по нитке

Literal translation: From the world by thread.

English equivalents: Little by little , step by step , gradually

The expression is likely to be used in a moment of great need, with the meaning that something will be obtained little by little from people who are willing to offer a helping hand.

Моя хата с краю.

Literal translation: My house is on the edge.

English equivalents: to be isolationist , insular , narrow-minded , closed-minded , to have parochial mindset

The expression is typically used with negative connotations about the group or person to whom it is applied.

Interestingly, in the past, Russians often employed the expression to describe the mindset of Ukrainians, with the meaning that Ukrainians do not concern themselves with the affairs of places they do not consider home, or matters outside of the family, their friendship circles, or sphere of work.

Беситься с жиру

Literal translation: To go crazy from fat.

English equivalents: To be dissatisfied with what one has, to behave immoderately, to overdo it, to be spoiled

The expression has a few shades of meaning. For example, it may refer to the endless desire for more, despite such fortune as having a great job, a great salary, a great life, a great network of family and friends, a solid relationship, etc. Yet another use is to criticise someone for excessive self-indulgence, e.g. if they purchase multiple things where one would do, or engage in gluttony. Additionally, it could be employed to describe a person who is spoiled from possessing too many things, leading an idle existence, or having a trouble-free life.

задать жару

Literal translation: to set the heat

English equivalent: to punish (someone, or something)

Поддать жару

Literal translation: to give heat

English equivalent: to actively encourage, spur on, or incite someone to take action, or take a decision

прибавить ходу

Literal translation: to add speed

English equivalent: to accelerate, to go more quickly

опустошить рюмку

Literal translation: to empty a glass of (something)

English equivalent: to down (a drink), to drink (something) quickly, to drink (something) like a fish

быть потерял из виду

Literal translation: to be out of sight

English equivalent: to lose contact with somebody, to have no knowledge of somebody, to not take something into account, to forget about something, to disappear from sight

не видел от роду

Literal translation: to not see during one’s life

English equivalent: to never have seen such a sight before, to never have seen something before

бросился с перепугу

Literal translation: to be rushed with fright

English equivalent: to panic, to begin to do something in a rush out of fear

For example, rushing to clean up your home before a last-minute visit from guests.

(говорить / встретиться) с глазу на глаз

Literal translation: (to talk / meet) with eye-on-eye

English equivalent: (to talk / meet) one-to-one, face-to-face, in person, etc.

не иметь ни складу ни лад у

Literal translation: to have neither storage nor harmony

English equivalent: to be irrelevant, to be loosely connected, to make little-to-no sense

не иметь ни проходу ни проезд у

Literal translation: to have neither passage by car, nor passage by foot

English equivalent: to not have a means of passing, to be unable to gain access, to be unable to pass

быть без роду, без племени / Без род у и племени

Literal translation: without family, or tribe

English equivalent: to be without family ties, to lack a family, or support network

с часу на час

Literal translation: from an hour to an hour

English equivalent: any minute now, in a jiffy , within the hour, soon, shortly

Ни шагу назад! (The accusative case is preferred.)

Not a step back! / Don’t give up!*

A rallying cry stemming from an order given to the Red Army by Stalin, during World War 2.

For some masculine nouns, the partitive genitive is never used, as it sounds strange.

For example:

English translation

Russian (nominative case)

Russian (partitive genitive)

Russian (standard genitive)

I would like a glass of Sprite.


Я бы хотел стакан спрайту.

Я бы хотел стакан спрайта.

I want to buy a kilogram of rose hips.


Я хочу купить килограмм шиповнику.

Я хочу купить килограмм шиповника.

I would like an ice cube.


Я бы хотел кубик льду.

Я бы хотел кубик льда.

He received a bag of coal from Santa .


Он получил мешок углю от Санты.

Он получил мешок угля от Санты.

I ate a piece of bread.


Я съел кусок хлебу.

Я съел кусок хлеба.

Some masculine nouns can only be used with the partitive genitive case.

For example:


English translation

Огоньку не найдётся ли?

Do you have a lighter?

Щец* не желаете?

(*This is a diminutive of the word щей and it only exists as a plural form of the partitive genitive case).

Would you like some (cabbage soup / sauerkraut soup ) ?

Nouns in the partitive genitive and accusative cases, are the only ones which may be used as the direct object in a verb, though this is dependent upon the animacy of the noun in question and whether it is countable or uncountable .

In order to avoid the use of the partitive genitive, you would have to reformulate the sentence in such a way as to use the accusative case .

20. When clarifying a distance relative to another in response to a question such as ‘Где (нахо́дится)…?’


+ от

+ Genitive case











For example:

I live close to the local library. – Я живу недалеко от местной библиотеки.

You’re not far from me! (= you don’t live far from me) – Ты живешь недалеко от меня!

He lives to the right of the lake. – Он живёт справа от озера.

She parked her car in the vicinity of the hotel. – Она припарковала свою машину бли́зко от отеля.

The supermarket isn’t far from us. – Супермаркет недалеко от нас.

We live far from the station. – Мы живем далеко от станции.

Our house is to the left of the athletics centre. – Наш дом слева от центра легкой атлетики.

They live near the sea. – Они живут недалеко от моря.

The preposition от meaning from, of or to or untranslated in the English equivalent to the adverbial phrases above, is followed by the genitive case of the noun or pronoun. In the absence of another location relative to which a distance is defined, the adverbs may be used alone.

For example:

Where is the post office? – Где почта?
It’s near. – Это близко.

How far away is the bus stop? – Как далеко автобусная остановка?

It’s far. – Это далеко.

21. To express a characteristic of the subject (being a person or otherwise), or clarify what is being referred to in particular.

For example:

I was amazed by the courage of the soldier. – Я был поражен мужеством солдата.

My hair was ruined by the humidity of the air in Dubai. – Мои волосы были испорчены влажностью воздуха в Дубае.

The model succeeded because of the unique nature of her face. – Модель преуспела благодаря уникальной природе своего лица.

The gracefulness of the ballet dancer’s movements was impressive. – Грациозность движений балерины была впечатляющей.

We were pleased with the quality of the service. – Мы были довольны качеством обслуживания.

They were impressed by the friendliness of the airline [hostess / stewardess / attendant]. – Они были впечатлены дружелюбием стюардессы авиакомпании.

She is a tall female. – Она – женщина высокого роста.

This is a matter of national security. – Это вопрос национальной безопасности.

You can change the language of the website. – Вы можете изменить язык сайта.

22. To designate the object of an action expressed by the noun.

For example:

Eventually, the study of grammar is essential if you want to achieve mastery of a foreign language. – В конце концов, изучение грамматики необходимо, если вы хотите достичь овладения иностранным языком.

Victoria will be in charge of the sale of tickets for the show. – Виктория будет отвечать за продажу билетов на шоу.

The time at the start of the lesson is used for review of topics learnt in the previous lesson. – Время в начале лекции используется для рассмотрения тем, изученных на предыдущем уроке.

The construction of the house took one year. – Строительство дома заняло один год.

The attack by the enemy was unexpected. – Нападение врагов было неожиданным.

The buzzing noise of mosquitoes annoys me. – Жужжание комаров раздражает меня.

The arrival of the train was a great relief as I rushed to get to work. – Прибытие поезда было большим облегчением, так как я спешил на работу.

The roar of the thunder scared him. – Рев грома напугал его.

The sound of the waves crashing against the shore was relaxing. – Звук волн, разбивающихся о берег, расслаблял.

23. For comparative purposes.

Questions: Кого? – Than who? Чего? – Than what?

For example:

My sister is younger than me. – Моя сестра младше меня.

An elephant is bigger than a mouse. – Слон больше мыши.

The town library is older than the school. – Городская библиотека старше школы.

Summer is hotter than spring. – Лето жарче весны.

24. In combination with both the long and short forms of certain adjectives.


Russian long form adjective

full of

полный, исполненный, преисполненный

worth, deserving


deprived of, lacking in


awarded with, honoured with


devoid of, free from


guilty (of)

виновный (в)

free (from)

свободный (от)

For example:

I don’t want to live a life full of struggle. – Я не хочу жить жизнью, полной борьбы.

You lack a sense of humour. – Тебе лишён чувства юмора.

He is deserving of respect. – Он достойный уважения.

We care for children deprived of love by their parents. – Мы заботимся о детях, лишенных любви со стороны родителей.

It is a worthy competitor. – Это достойный конкурент.

The beach is full of tourists. – Пляж полон туристов.

25. To indicate authorship (for example, the person who wrote, directed, or painted a literary work, film, or piece of art).

For example:

The novel was written by Leo Tolstoy. – Роман написан Львом Толстым.

This is a series of poems by Alexander Pushkin. – Это серия стихотворений Александра Пушкина.

The philosophical letters of Aleksey Chapygin are very interesting. – Очень интересны философские письма Алексея Чапыгина.

26. When specifying the nationality of origin of someone or something using the preposition из .

For example:

He is from Greece. – Он из Греции.

The actress has Ukrainian roots from Lviv, but grew up in Moscow. – Актриса имеет украинские корни из Львова, но выросла в Москве.

I am eating tomato salad. – Я ем салат из томатов.

The dress is made of cotton. – Платье изготовлено из хлопка.

The company imports wines from Spain. – Компания импортирует вина из Испании.

27. When describing the material from which an object is made using the preposition из.

In English, made of denotes the material which an object is composed of, whilst made from is used where the material undergoes a manufacturing process for the final result. In Russian, the preposition remains the same (as ‘из’) in either case. In English, as in Russian, we may also use the construction involving an adjective which appears before the noun (e.g. a leather wallet).

For example:

The desk in our office is made of mahogany. – Стол в нашем офисе сделан из красного дерева.

I bought my husband a wallet made of leather. – Я купила мужу бумажник из кожи.

She received a dress made from silk for her birthday. – На свой день рождения она получила платье из шелка.

Did you know that paper is made from wood? – Вы знали, что бумага сделана из дерева?

How is butter made from milk? – Как масло сделано из молока?

We drank wine made from red grapes. – Мы пили вино из красного винограда.

28. When expressing a time range (that is, the beginning and end of the time interval), using the construction с … до meaning from … un(til).

Questions: Когда – When? Сколько времени? – How long?

I work fromeight in the morning until six in the evening. – Я работаю с восьми утра до шести вечера.

The shop is open from nine in the morning until ten in the evening. – Магазин открыт с девяти утра до десяти вечера.

My father worked from the age of eighteen until the age of sixty-five. – Мой отец работал с восемнадцати до шестидесяти пяти лет.

The award ceremony starts at seven in the evening and finishes at midnight. – Церемония награждения начинается с семи вечера и заканчивается в полночь.

29. When sending well wishes to someone.

For example:

Best wishes . – Всего доброго!

Have a safe journey! – Счастливого пути! (Literally: happy journey)
Best of luck in your future endeavours! – Удачи в ваших будущих начинаниях!

30. To express sorrow for someone using the adverbs жалко and жаль.

For example:

I feel sorry for her. – Мне её [жаль / жалко].

Do you feel sorry for him? – Тебе его уже [жаль / жалко]?

He felt sorry for them. – Ему было их [жаль / жалко].

We felt sorry for the children, but what could we do? – Нам было [жаль / жалко] детей, но что мы могли сделать?

They gave her a place to stay because they felt sorry for her. – Они дали ей место, чтобы остаться, потому что им было её [жаль / жалко].

31. To indicate a period of time using the prepositions до – before , во время – during, после – after.

I met up with my friend before the football match. – Я встретился со своим другом до футбольного матча.

I went to the supermarket after church. – Я пошел в супермаркет после церкви.

He fell asleep during the meeting. – Он заснул во время встречи.

32. In preference to the accusative case where abstract nouns are concerned.

It tends to be the case that the accusative case is used with negated verbs where tangible nouns (e.g. book, apple, pen) are involved, whilst the genitive case is used with abstract nouns (e.g. relationship, friendship, and love), although this is not always the case.

For example:

I didn’t find a pen in the cupboard. – Я не нашел ручку в шкафу. (Accusative case)

He didn’t want a relationship with her. – Он не хотел отношения с ней. (Genitive case)

He won’t eat fish. – Он не будет есть рыбу. (Accusative case)

My mum wouldn’t understand the concept. – Моя мама не поняла бы концепции. (Genitive case)

You’ll simply have to commit certain idiomatic expressions to memory.

For example:

Stop pestering me. – Не морочь мне голову. (Accusative case)
Don’t mess with me / stop messing with me / don’t give me the run around. – Не заговаривай зубы. (Genitive case)

To [feel / get] restless. – Не находить себе места. (Genitive case)

An additional use of the genitive case in preference to the accusative case, is to indicate specificity or generality in the same way that ‘a/an’ and ‘the’ are used in English. The genitive case is used when discussing something that is new, unknown, or introduced to a listener for the first time. The accusative is used when talking about something that was previously known to the listener, or discussed at an earlier point in time.

For example:

I have never seen a panther before. – Я никогда раньше не видел пантеры.

The genitive case is used here, as reference is made to panthers in general.

I have never seen the panther before. – Я никогда раньше не видел пантеру.

The accusative case is used here, as reference is made to a specific panther.

Although you have virtually all of the information you could possibly need at this stage of learning at your finger tips here, much like playing a sport, no one can step in and perform the gruelling task of training for you so that you can improve your performance.

Practice makes perfect and the more you attempt to apply the genitive case in conversation and on paper, the more quickly you’ll achieve mastery. Now you have pretty much everything there is to know about the genitive case at your finger tips, it’s down to you to get down to business and study this guide repeatedly in order to help the information sink in and make complete sense.

Take each section slowly, reading through the words of a section as many times as necessary for the concept to make sense. Numerous examples have been provided to contextualise the information and make it easier to digest. Once you have understood a new function, you can move on to the next.

One tip I would highly recommend is attempting to memorise the endings by heart (not for the faint of heart) and then reading through the uses. If you know the endings in advance, as you go through each section you can reinforce your knowledge by seeing them in practice and testing your ability to recall the endings on demand, which will make using the genitive case more intuitive for you.

An excellent website for practising the genitive case of nouns in particular is Rus On Line .

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