The most comprehensive guide you will find on the Internet to the Dative Case in Russian – дательный падеж

Questions: Кому?to whom? and чему ? to what?

The dative case is used:

1. To highlight the indirect object (that is, the person / thing receiving the direct object).

For example:
He gave the ball to Sasha. – Он отдал мяч Саше.


Sasha receives the direct object (the ball), the direct object being the person/thing receiving the action of the verb (as opposed to the action of the direct object).

2. With some reflexive verbs in impersonal constructions which trigger the use of the dative case.


The so–called ‘ impersonal passive ’ constructions, are sentences which do not have a subject in the nominative case, as would ordinarily be the case. Instead, the third person singular form of a verb is paired with a dative case personal pronoun, which is the equivalent of the indirect object English.

Reflexive verbs bear the ending –ся (after verbs ending in a consonant, –ь or –й) or –cь (after verbs ending in a vowel), which are abbreviations of the reflexive pronoun себя – self. These verbs are used reflexively because the sentence does not possess what we would refer to as a direct object in English (that is, the person or thing receiving the action of the verb). In Russian grammar, the direct object is identified through the use of the accusative case .

As in English, whilst certain verbs are inherently impersonal, impersonal passive constructions are also employed with other verbs in Russian, in order to soften the meaning of a verb, or make the statement or request more polite.

For example, you can use the dative case in Russian to say мне хочется – I would like, instead of я хочу – I want.

The expression ‘I feel like’ (doing) something, can also be expressed using мне хочется in Russian.


Note that the presence of the direct object in the English translation does not mean that one exists in the Russian equivalent.

Also, impersonal constructions in the Russian dative case are merely one of the possible impersonal constructions in the language.


Further examples are provided below:

I like oranges. – Мне Нравятся апельсины.

I would like to go to the cinema. – Мне хочется в кино.
I don’t feel like reading. – Мне не хочется читать.

He feels hungry. – Ему хочется есть.
I can’t sleep. – Мне не спится.

It seems to me that they don’t care. – Мне кажется, что им все равно.

3. As the subject of the verbs and adverbs (used as verbs) below, expressing obligation, permission, prohibition or need.*

Adverb

English translation

Example

нельзя

impossible, prohibited, forbidden, not allowed, one cannot, one must not

You can’t drink – You’re pregnant! – Тебе нельзя спиртного, ты беременна!

You’ve got diabetes, you can’t eat too many bananas. – У тебя диабет, тебе нельзя есть много бананов.

We must not lose sight of the fact that each situation is specific. – Нам нельзя упускать из виду тот факт, что каждая ситуация специфична.

You can’t smoke here. – Тебе нельзя здесь курить.

You’re not supposed to be in here. – Тебе нельзя здесь находиться.

We cannot forget the importance of freedom of speech as a fundamental value of human society. – нам нельзя забывать о важности свободы слова как фундаментальной ценности человеческого общества.

можно

may / allowed to / can / able to
forbidden / cannot / must not
have to

Show me that you can be trusted. – Покажи, что тебе можно доверять.

You can have them. – Тебе можно.

May I have a cup of tea please? – Можно мне чашку чая?

Can we watch it on the television please? – Пожалуйста, можно нам посмотреть это по телевизору пожалуйста?

должен, должна, должно, должны*

must / should

My friends owe me money. – Мои друзья должны мне деньги.

How much do I owe you? – Сколько я вам должен?

приходиться

I’m sorry that I have to leave. – Прости, что мне приходиться уезжатью

It’s not easy having to do it all alone. – Не просто, когда приходиться всем этим заниматься одному.

We’ve had to accept it all our lives. – Нам приходиться мириться с этим всю жизнь.

надо

need to

They must be given an opportunity to speak out. – им надо дать возможность высказываться.

What do you want at this time? – Что тебе надо в такое время?

You need to go to hospital. – Тебе надо в больницу.

You need to go to school. – Тебе надо в школу.

You need to seek advice. – Вам необходимо обратиться за консультацией.

You would have to obtain a visa. – Тебе необходимо получить визу.

You need to see a doctor! – Тебе нужно обратиться к врачу!

I need a new car. – Мне нужна новая машина.

необходимо

нужен, нужна, нужно, нужны

Note: The verb обязан – to be obliged to, is not included above as it must be used with the accusative case.

*The adverbs должен, должна, должно, должны are only used with the dative case in the context of owing someone money (for example, to a friend, or a sales assistant in a supermarket).

4. With verbs indicating that something is transferred / given / permitted / sent / communicated / addressed / directed ‘to’ somebody, where to or for would typically follow the verb in English.

The thing given (the direct object) need not be a physical object, with giving someone assistance being just as valid as giving someone a pen, for the purposes of using the dative case.


For example:

You should send a letter to your aunt. – Вы должны отправить письмо вашей тете.
I tried to call my sister, but the phone was busy. – Я пытался позвонить сестре, но телефон был занят.

It may not always be immediately clear why the dative case is used in certain contexts, in particular, where the English translation lacks the prepositions to or for. However, a sentence can often be rewritten in English to include the prepositions, without a corresponding change in the Russian translation. For example:

I wrote my grandma a letter. – Я написал письмо моей бабушке.

I wrote a letter to my grandma. – Я написал письмо моей бабушке.

There is no change in the meaning of the sentences above, despite the fact that the English translations changed somewhat.

I want to buy my son a toy. – Я хочу купить моему сыну игрушку.

I want to buy a toy for my son. – Я хочу купить моему сыну игрушку.

Again, there is no change in the meaning of the sentences above, despite the fact that the English translations changed somewhat.

However, the latter example can also be translated using the preposition для – for, which is governed by the genitive case in Russian. Consider the example below:

I want to buy my son a toy. / I want to buy a toy for my son. – Я хочу купить игрушку для моего сына.

Verbs which typically trigger the use of the dative case because an indirect object is involved

To allow – Разрешить

His parents allowed him to go on the school trip abroad. – Его родители разрешили ему отправиться в школьную поездку за границу.

To believe – верить

I believe you. – Я верю тебе.

To bring – Принести / приносить

Bring me your textbook tomorrow. – Принеси мне свой учебник завтра.

To call – Звонить

She called her mother before going to bed. – Она позвонила маме перед сном.

To give – Давать

He gave her his last bar of chocolate. – Он дал ей свою последнюю плитку шоколада.

To help – помогать

I can help you with your homework* – Я могу помочь тебе с домашней работой.

*That is, I can give you help with your homework.

To tell – Рассказать / говорить

I told her a secret. – Я рассказал ей секрет.
I tell my children that I love them every day. – Я каждый день говорю моим детям, что люблю их.

5. When describing or requesting the age of a person or an object.

Note that the dative case is only used for the person or thing whose age we are talking about. It is in fact the genitive case, which is used with the precise number indicating age.

I am 25 years old. – Мне 25 лет. (Literally: ‘to me – 25 years’)

For example:

Michael turned 18 yesterday. – Вчера Майклу исполнилось 18 лет.

How old is Christina? – Сколько Кристине лет?

How old is that car? – Сколько лет этой машине?

The rule can be summarised thus:

Dative case pronoun for the ‘logical’ subject

+

The nominative singular case for the number 1 OR the genitive singular for numbers 2–4 OR the genitive plural for 5 plus numbers.

+

The nominative singular – год OR the genitive singular года OR the genitive plural лет* (meaning year(s), in accordance with the required grammatical agreement with the number of years).

*The word лет is an irregular genitive plural form of the word год. However, there are times when the non–irregular genitive form годов is used. For example, when talking about periods of time in the past:

Since the 1980s … – С 1980–х годов …

In the late 1850s… – В конце 1850–х годов…

6. To describe the physical (e.g. hot / cold / thirsty / in pain) or emotional state (sad / bored / confused / ashamed) of the subject in impersonal passive constructions.

The Russian language construes the subject as the recipient of the feeling; that is, the feeling is ‘transferred’ to the subject.

For example:

I am cold. – Мне холодно. (Literally, ‘to me cold’)

The baby is hot. – Ребенку жарко. (Literally, ‘to baby hot’)

Further examples:

I am thirsty. – Мне хочется пить.

I am in pain. – Мне больно.

The students were bored. – Студентам было скучно.

They felt ashamed. – Им было стыдно.

She felt awkward because her friend caught her talking behind her back. – Ей было неловко, потому что её подруга поймала её за разговором за её спиной.

7. To describe the subject’s perception of something else (fun / funny / easy / clear (to the person) / understandable / difficult) in impersonal passive constructions.

Both the true ‘adverbs’ and short adjectives below may be used with the dative case.

English translation

Adverb

Short adjectives

Short–form adjective

(masculine, –feminine, –neuter, –plural ending)

Long–form adjective

(masculine, –feminine, –neuter, –plural ending)

easy

легко

лёгок (легка / легко / легки)

лёгкий (remove ий and add –ая, –ое, –ие)

hard

трудно

трудeн (–а/–о/–ы)

трудный (remove ый and add –ая, –ое, –ые)

harmful

вреден

вреден (–а/–о/–ы)

вредный (remove ый and add –ая, –ое, –ые)

interesting

интересен

интересен (–а/–о/–ы)

интересный (remove ый and add –ая, –ое, –ые)

known (prominent, famous)

известен

известен (–а/–о/–ы)

известный (remove ый and add –ая, –ое, –ые)

necessary, required

необходимо

необходим (–а/–о/–ы)

необходимый (remove ый and add –ая, –ое, –ые)

understandable

понятен

понятен (–а/–о/–ы)

понятный (remove ый and add –ая, –ое, –ые)

useful, helpful

полезен

полезен (–а/–о/–ы)

полезный (remove ый and add –ая, –ое, –ые)

For example:

It was understandable / made sense (to them). – Им было понятно.

It was clear (to us). – Нам было ясно.

It was easy (for him) – Ему было легко.

It was funny (to/for them) – Им было смешно.

It was fun / I had fun. – Мне было весело.

It was hard for me. – Мне было трудно.

It was interesting for them. – Им было интересно.

It is necessary for the students to prepare for the exam. – Студентам необходимо подготовиться к экзамену.

It is harmful for the baby. – Ребенку вредно.

The laptop/notebook is useful for me. – мне полезен ноутбук.

To people worldwide, she is known as the greatest singer of her time. – Людям во всем мире она известна как величайшая певица своего времени.

A note on long and short–form adjectives

§ The long form of a Russian adjective is employed when we want to describe permanent or constant characteristics – particularly those pertaining to a person or an object – whilst the short form is used to describe temporary characteristics (that is, the reliability of the description provided by the adjective may be limited in some way, or dependent on external factors – e.g. something may be beautiful, but only – or more so – during a particular season and something may be useful, but only if used correctly etc.).

§ However, they are not entirely interchangeable. There are some instances where the use of a specific type of adjective is preferred. For example, although both ‘Я вам благодарен’ (short form) and ‘Я вам благодарный’ (long form) are grammatically sound, you’d be hard pressed to find a native speaker using the long form.

§ Short adjectives only have to agree with the gender and number of a noun; there is no declension. This means that there is no agreement with a noun’s grammatical case, as would be the case if we were to use a long adjective.

§ Not all Russian adjectives have dual forms. Generally, those ending in–ский, –овой, –евой, –ной, –ный, and –ний only have a long form.

§ The word это – it, this, or that – always requires the neuter short form. For example:

That is understandable / makes sense. – Это понятно.

8. With the adjectives благодарный (thankful/grateful), верный (loyal, faithful, true), не верный (cheated – exam or on a romantic partner, unfaithful), свойственный (characteristic), подобный (similar), нужный (needed), необходимый (required/necessary).

The fact that a long or a short form adjective is used, doesn’t affect the use of the dative case.

For example:

I am thankful / grateful to you for making me feel welcome. – Я благодарен вам за то, что заставили меня чувствовать себя желанным гостем.

Our dogs are loyal to us. – Нам наши собаки верны.

My husband cheated on me. – Мой муж мне был неверен.

Leaders are characterised by this distinctive feature. – Лидерам характерна эта отличительная черта.

I wish I knew where we could find others like him. – Хотел бы я знать, где мы можем найти других, подобных ему.

I’ve heard that (something similar) before too. – подобное мне тоже приходилось слышать.

I’m considering taking some much–needed time off / holiday / vacation. – Я намерен взять очень нужный мне отпуск.

We need to determine the kind of support needed (by them) – Нам нужно определить необходимый им вид помощи.

9. Occasionally, with interrogative pronouns, or interrogative adverbs with the logical subject* followed by the infinitive.

Interrogative pronouns are question words such as who, what, which, etc. and the intention is to discover the subject (the person or thing in the nominative case in Russian). Interrogative adverbs on the other hand, are question words such as why, when, where, how etc. which we use to discover the reason for something, e.g. a specific time, a place or the manner in which something was done.

What should we do now? – Что нам теперь делать?

What does she think (about it)? – Что ей думать об этом?

What should we tell her? – что нам ей сказать?
How do we get to the train station? – Как нам пройти до железнодорожного вокзала?

How can I learn more about this? – Откуда мне узнать об этом больше?

Who are you thinking about? – О ком тебе думать?

How far do you travel to get to work? – как далеко тебе идти на работу?

What are we living for – to prop up the fat–cats? – Для чего нам жить – заполнить карманы крупных предпринимателей?

How can I help you? – Чем тебе помочь?

How long do you have to study at university for? – Как долго тебе учиться в университете?

(When in a shop) How much do I owe you? – Сколько тебе дать?

Who told you? – Кто тебе сказал?

When can I call you back? – Когда тебе перезвонить?

Why should I go there? – Зачем мне ехать туда?

*A note on the logical subject

In English, sentence order is rather inflexible and generally follows the subject–verb–object (S–V–O) rule. The subject in grammar is the agent (the animate noun which performs the verb action) in an ‘active’ rather than ‘passive’ sentence.

For example:

John hit the wall.

This is an active sentence because John performed the action of hitting the wall. John is the subject of the sentence; the person ‘doing’ the action of the verb. The object is the wall which ‘received’ the verb’s action (that is, it was hit).

Compare this to the following:

The wall was hit by John.

Although identical in meaning to the first sentence, the latter is a passive sentence because the subject did not perform the action of hitting; John did. The wall was merely on the receiving end of the action. That is, the wall received the impact of John hitting it. Therefore, although the wall is the grammatical subject of the sentence above, based on the S–V–O sentence order in English, the logical subject is John, the person who committed the act. Hence, the logical subject can be defined as the obvious agent (the perpetrator) of an actor in a passive sentence, despite not appearing as a subject in the passive variant. You can identify this unstated subject by converting a passive sentence to an active one.

10. After the prepositions к(о) and по which govern the dative case.

К(о) – to, towards, up to, to, for

This preposition к is exclusively К(о) – to, towards, up to, to, for
used with the dative case. Ко is used before monosyllabic words (e.g. the English cat which has a single, uninterrupted vowel sound) and some non–monosyllabic words such as весь, вторник, второй, мне, многие and многое, in order to avoid an awkward cluster of consonants.

His girlfriend came to the second football match of the year. – Его подруга пришла ко второму футбольному матчу года.

a. Indicating direction, answering the question to whom, or to where

For example:

I am going to my friend’s (house/place). – Я иду к другу.

She is going to Maria’s (house/place). – Я иду к Марии.

The children ran down to (towards) the river. – Дети побежали к реке.

The man pulled up to the security window. – Мужчина подъехал к окну безопасности.

The train is approaching the station. – Поезд приближается к станции.

He felt nothing but love towards his young brother. – Он не чувствовал ничего, кроме любви к своему младшему брату.

The dog approached the boy timidly. – Собака подошла к мальчику робко.

b. Following the use of the preposition after expressing one’s feelings

For example:

He had a love for horses. – У него была любовь к лошадям.

They had great respect for the man. – Они имели большое уважение к этому человеку.

She had a weakness for chocolate. – У нее была слабость к шоколаду.

She had a great interest in biology. – У нее был большой интерес к биологии.

c. Following к where it means by or at a certain point in time

For example:

I realised by Friday evening that I had not submitted my assignment. – К вечеру пятницы я понял, что не сдал свое задание.

I’ll try to get you the documents by the end of the day. – Постараюсь подготовить вам документы к концу дня.

Just let me know by the end of the day. – Просто дайте мне знать к концу дня.

I should be able to get this back to you by next week – Думаю, смогу вернуть её на следующей неделе

d. With the verb to access followed by the preposition к meaning to

For example:


I don’t have access to the Internet right now. – У меня нет доступа к Интернету прямо сейчас.

e. With the expression ‘for example’


For example – К примеру

По (highly varied – see below)

По is used in a variety of contexts, in which it bears completely different meanings. Depending on the intended meaning, it can govern the dative case, the accusative case, or the prepositional case. With the latter, it means after, or for.

f. To describe movement across a surface
По’s meaning:
Along (with one–directional verbs of motion), among, around (with multidirectional verbs of motion), by, down, on, over, through

He walked down the street. – Он шел по улице

They went through the tunnel. – Они прошли через туннель

The boy ran around the garden. – Мальчик бегал по саду

She paced around the room. Она ходи́ла по комнате.

The bird flew across the room. – Птица летела по комнате

He likes walking along the embankment. – Он лю́бит гуля́ть по на́бережной.

The detectives followed the clues along the trail to find the suspect. – Детективы проследили за уликами по следу, чтобы найти подозреваемого.

g. To clarify the means of communication used
По’s meaning:
by, on, over, through, via (regarding appliances, electronic devices, electronic and physical communication services etc.)

For example:

She spoke on the phone for a long time. – Она долго разговаривала по телефону.

We can talk about it over the phone tonight. – Мы можем поговорить об этом по телефону сегодня вечером.

We chat via online messenger. – Мы общаемся через интернет–мессенджеру.

She contacted the company by post. – Она связалась с компанией письмом.

The job applicant sent her application by e–mail. – Соискатель отправил свою заявку по электронной почте.

I saw / watched that programme on Channel 5. – Я смотрел эту программу по 5 каналу.

h. To highlight an attribute of the subject of a sentence (communicating what it relates to), or to specify a person’s area of (professional) specialisation

По’s meaning: by (profession), by (skill/unique trait), for, in (a field of knowledge), of, on

For example:


I am studying for my English exam. – Я готовлюсь к экзамену по английскому языку.

She is a heart specialist. – Она специалист по сердечно–сосудистым заболеваниям.

He is an expert in family law. – Он специалист по семейному праву.He is a surgeon by profession. – По профессии он хирург.

A text book on mathematics. – Учебник по математике.

She got an A in mathematics. – Она получи́ла A по матема́тике.

He was easily identifiable by his distinctive voice. – Его легко узнать по его характерному голосу.

i. To indicate the frequency of a habitual state of affairs, or to describe a repetitive action

По’s meaning: each, every, in, on

When an action is done a succession of times, a place is visited repeatedly (at different times), or a habitual action takes place on specific days of the week, in order to indicate frequency of occurrence.

For example:

She goes shopping to relieve stress. – Она ходит по магазинам, чтобы снять стресс.

She has a habit of going shopping in order to relieve stress.

The man walked around the village in search of his lost wallet. – Мужчина шел по деревне в поисках своего потерянного кошелька.
The man repeatedly visited different areas in the village for a period of time, in search of his wallet.

She has piano lessons on Thursdays. – По четвергам уроки игры на фортепиано.
Every Thursday each week she has piano lessons.

I struggle to sleep at night. – Мне не спится по ночам.

On a regular basis, the subject of the sentence struggles to fall asleep at a reasonable time.

j. To specify or request the cause / reason for something

По’s meaning: because of (this), by (reason of), for what reason, on account of (this)

For example:

He couldn’t walk to school because he injured his foot. – Он не мог ходить в школу по причине*, что он повредил ногу. (*Literally ‘for the reason that’)

Why (for what reason) didn’t you do your homework? – по какой причине ты не сделал домашнее задание?
The children have the right to know that they are adopted on account of their age. – Дети имеют право знать, что они усыновлены по возрасту.

k. To highlight the closeness of a connection to, or a relationship with someone else

По’s meaning: from, through

For example:

He is a school friend. – Он товарищ по школе.

She is a cousin through my father’s side of the family. – Она двоюродная сестра по отцовской линии семьи

l. To communicate that you miss someone, or something.

По’s meaning: untranslatable

For example:

I miss my parents. – Я скучаю по моим родителям.

I miss living near the sea. – Я скучаю по жизни у моря.

m. When discussing someone or something that is the object of the verb бить (to beat, kick, hit, or pound) + по.

По appears after the verb and is then followed by the person or thing which receives the action of the verb (that is, being hit) in the dative case.

For example:

Several people began to slap him around. – Несколько человек стали его бить по щекам*. (*Literally, ‘to beat / hit on the cheeks’)

It is permitted to kick the ball with any part of the leg below the knee. – Разрешается бить по мячу любой частью ноги ниже колена

n. To indicate agreement or conformity with something, e.g. a rule, law, wish, schedule etc.

По’s meaning: by (in accordance with)

For example:

If you play by the rules, you miss all the fun. – Если вы играете по правилам, вы упускаете все самое интересное.

A judge analyses according to the facts of a case. – по фактам дела был вынесен приговор.

She wanted to be known by her newly–acquired surname after marriage. – Она хотела, чтобы её знали по её недавно приобретенной семейной фамилии после брака.

o. When a singular noun is distributed between 2 or more direct objects of a verb (that is, a person, or thing, receiving the action of a verb).

For example:

You must take ONE tablet TWICE a day. – Вы должны принимать по одной таблетке два раза в день.
He bought the roses at a cost of 1 euro apiece. – Он купил розы по цене 1 евро за штуку.

Compare the following:

She gave the students one pen each. – Она дала студентам по одной ручке.

She gave the students two pens each. – Она дала студентам по две ручки.

p. To request or confirm information about the way in which something is done.

По’s meaning: by (manner), using

For example:

Do you refer to him by his first name? – Вы называете его по имени?

q. When using the expression по одному — at a time.

По’s meaning: at a time

For example:

Students must enter the store one at a time. – Студенты должны войти в магазин по одному.

r. When using the expression по отношению к — in relation to.

По’s meaning: in relation to

For example:

Laws in relation to women’s rights. — Законы правам женщин.

s. When using the expression по направлению к — in the direction of, towards.

For example:


They left the city and went in the direction of the countryside. — Они покинули город и пошли по направлению к сельской местности.
The dog ran toward the house. – Собака побежала по направлению к дому.

t. When using the adverb судя по — based on, judging by .

For example:

Apparently, by the looks of it, presumably, obviously, by all accounts, it seems – Судя по всему

It was a success, judging by the number of examples of successful efforts. – Это был успех – судя по количеству успешных усилий.

Judging by the expressions on their faces, they seemed happy. – Судя по выражениям, их лиц, они казались счастливыми.

11. When specifying for whom or what something is intended, or to clarify objectives where, in English, the corresponding preposition would be for.

По’s meaning: for

For example:

The ride is free for children under the age of 5.

I think you should call your landlord for clarification.

12. After certain adverbs and prepositions.

For example:

Adverbs

Examples

сродни – akin to

For me, learning russian is akin to learning to read and write again – Для меня изучение русского языка сродни обучению читать и писать снова.

согласно – according to, in accord(ance) with, accordingly

The wedding went according to plan. – Свадьба прошла согласно с планом.

соразмерно –proportionate to, commensurate with

Each student will be awarded commensurate with their efforts. – Каждый студент будет награжден соразмерно их усилиям.

The punishment should be proportional to the situation. – Наказание должно быть соразмерно ситуации.

соответственно – according to, in accord(ance) with, accordingly, respectively

The train set off at 08:00 in accordance with the timetable. – Поезд отправился в 08:00 соответственно с расписанием

некогда – (there is) no time (to)

I have no time to hang out with you – Мне некогда торчать с вами.

We have no time to play. – Нам некогда играть

пора – It is time (to do something, to go etc.), just in time, right on time

It’s time for me to go. – Мне пора идти.

It’s time for you to be more independent. – Тебе пора быть более независимым

жаль – it is a pity, it is unfortunate, sadly

I am sorry, but I must get going now. – Мне жаль, но мне пора идти.

It is a pity that we will not be able to see each other. – Мне жаль, что мы не уви́димся.

жалко – feel sorry

The girl felt sorry for the boy. – Девочке стало жалко мальчика.


For example:

Prepositions

Examples

благодаря – thanks to, because of, due to

Thanks to you, I am much more confident speaking English. – Благодаря вам я намного увереннее говорю по–английски.

Thanks to the electrical outage, there was not light. – Благодаря отключению электричества света не было.

Наперекор (stronger than вопреки) – despite, in spite of, against, in defiance of, contrary to

I did it against my better judgment. – Я пошла наперекор своим принципам.

It goes against everything we stand for. – Это идёт наперекор всему, во что мы верим.

The Government cannot go against the wishes of its people. – Правительство не может идти наперекор воле своего народа.

Against all odds. – Наперекор всем невзгодам.

вопреки – despite, in spite of, against, in defiance of, contrary to

Contrary to what you might think, whisky didn’t originate in Scotland. – Вопреки общепринятому мнению виски изобрели не в Шотландии.

Despite attempts at secrecy, the truth was eventually revealed. – Вопреки попыткам засекречивания, правда была в конечном итоге раскрыта

It was done [against, contrary to] her will. – Сделано Вопреки её желанию.

навстречу – towards, to meet

They are sailing towards disaster. – Они плывут навстречу катастрофе.

наперерез – (cut) across, off

You cut him off. – Ты ему наперерез.

вслед – after, following

Everyone was checking me out. – Все оборачивались мне вслед.

After / following that… – Вслед этому…

13. With certain nouns governing the dative case.

English translation

Russian noun

Examples

monument

памятник

It is a monument to the soldiers who fought in WW2. – Это памятник солдатам, сражавшимся во Второй мировой войне.

assistance

помощь

The NGO provided assistance to refugees and asylum seekers. – Неправительственная (НПО) организация оказала помощь беженцам и лицам, ищущим убежища.

an imitation

подражание

This is an imitation of the famous Nike logo. – Это подражание известному логотипу Nike.

answer

ответ

The teacher gave an answer to John. – Учитель дал ответ Джону.

gift/present

подарок

I bought a present to best friend. – Я купил подарок лучшему другу.

letter

письмо

He wrote a letter to the President. – Он написал письмо президенту.

14. When addressing letters to someone.

For example:

(To) Doctor Vorontsov – Доктору Воронцову

(To) Mr Alexandrov – Г–ну Александрову

Exceptions to the rules on declension in the dative case

English

Russian singular nominative case form

Russian singular dative case form

Russian plural dative case form

mother

мать

матери

матерям

daughter

дочь

дочери

дочерям

brother

брат

брату

братьям

son

сын

сыну

сыновьям

tree

дерево

дереву

деревьям

husband

муж

мужу

мужьям

chair

стул

стулу

стульям

leaf

лист

листу

листьям

pen

перо

перу

перьям

wing

крыло

крылу

крыльям

friend

друг

другу

друзьям

father

отец

отцу

отцам

baby

ребенок

ребенку

детям

person

человек

человеку

людям

Below, you will find a list of verbs often used with the dative case (either exclusively or along with other cases in accordance with what the context demands): (COMING SOON)

With special thanks to Allen Rabinovich, a native speaker of Russian, who kindly reviewed the translations for accuracy.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s